These are being promoted by CNEC. Once it is fully operational, each AHWR fuel assembly will have the fuel pins arranged in three concentric rings: Inner: 12 pins Th-U-233 with 3.0% U-233. Its main purpose is to provide operating experience and technological solutions, especially regarding fuels, that will be applied to the BN-1200. The first ones are in operation in Japan and others are under construction in several countries. The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The ESBWR is more innovative, with lower building costs due to modular construction, lower operating costs, 24-month refuelling cycle and a 60-year operating lifetime. It is designed to withstand seismic ground acceleration of 600 Gal without safety impairment. However, all transuranic elements are removed together in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that fresh fuel has minor actinides with the plutonium. The CANDU-9 (925-1300 MWe) was developed from the CANDU-6 als… Demonstration plant being built at Shidaowan. (In the demonstration plant it would transfer heat in a steam generator rather than driving a turbine directly.) A variant of this is proposed to utilise the UK's reactor-grade plutonium stockpile. Both require parallel redundant systems. The reduced moderation means that more fissile plutonium is produced and the breeding ratio is around 1 (instead of about 0.6), and much more of the U-238 is converted to Pu-239 and then burned than in a conventional reactor. Versatility of fuel is a claimed feature of the EC6 and its derivatives. One AFCR can be fully fuelled by the recycled uranium from four LWRs’ used fuel. The first commercial version will be China's HTR-PM, being built at Shidaowan in Shandong province. It is capable of running on a full MOX core if required. tion ofLWRs (ABWR & APWR) will utilize fuel cycles that increase the energy contributed by plutonium. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The main development of the type was to be through UniStar Nuclear Energy. The AES-92 is certified as meeting EUR, and its V-392 reactor is considered state of the art. However, Areva says that the talks are not aimed at joint development of a 1000 MWe reactor, so much as "to see if the three companies can converge on specifications for such a design that would allow deeper collaboration". 0000072922 00000 n Unlike previous BWRs in Japan the external recirculation loop and internal jet pumps are replaced by coolant pumps mounted at the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel. Ramp up and down between 100% and 50% takes two hours. Two units operating in China, under construction in Finland and France. China operates 22 nuclear power reactors, including two Candu 6 reactors at Qinshan that have been in … So-called third-generation reactors have: * The US NRC requirement for calculated core damage frequency (CDF) is 1x10-4, most current US plants have about 5x10-5 and Generation III plants are about ten times better than this. BWXT continues to actively participate in the supply and development of CANDU® fuel and has supplied over half a million fuel bundles for reactors. The VBER-300 and the similar-sized VK300 are more fully described in the Small Nuclear Power Reactors information page. A single unit has 149 structural modules broadly of five kinds, and 198 mechanical modules of four kinds: equipment, piping & valve, commodity, and standard service modules. Seismic rating is 300 gal. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources. The helium is passed through a water-cooled pre-cooler and intercooler before being returned to the reactor vessel. Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700, ACR-1000, CANDU Pressurized Tube Reactor, Calandria, Fuel channels, On-Power refuelling, Heavy Water Moderator, slightly enriched uranium, Hydrogen production, Oil sands ABSTRACT Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the ACR TM (Advanced CANDU(1) Reactor) to meet today’s market challenges. Gidropress has developed the VVER-600/V-498 for sites such as Kola, where larger units are not required. In the MOX part, minor actinides are burned as well as recycled plutonium. Areva NP is working with EdF on a ‘new model’ EPR, the EPR NM or EPR2, “offering the same characteristics” as the EPR but with simplified construction and significant cost reduction – about 30%. 0000003654 00000 n The reactor is regarded as mid-sized relative to other modern designs and will be marketed primarily to countries embarking upon nuclear power programs. As well as U-233, some U-232 is formed, and the highly gamma-active daughter products of this confer a substantial proliferation resistance. Produced at manufacturing facilities in Peterborough, Toronto and Arnprior, Ontario, BWXT has supplied nuclear fuel bundles to CANDU® stations since the early 1950s. * Traditional reactor safety systems are 'active' in the sense that they involve electrical or mechanical operation on command. South Africa's Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) was being developed by a consortium led by the utility Eskom, with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries from 2010. Many technical and engineering questions remain to be explored before the potential of this concept can be demonstrated. Improved safety and performance will raise the capital cost above that of the OPR, but it this will be offset by reduced construction time (40 months instead of 46) due to modular construction. Average burnup is 45,000 MWd/tU, thermal efficiency is 36%. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) is involved with a consortium to develop a Japan Standard Fast Reactor (JSFR) concept, though with breeding ratio less than 1:1. A GDA of each type can then be followed by site- and operator-specific licensing. The other type, System 80+, was an advanced pressurised water reactor, which was ready for commercialisation but was never promoted for sale. Based on this, KOPEC has developed an EU version (APR1400-EUR or EU-APR) with double containment and core-catcher which was given EUR approval in October 2017. An AES-2006 plant will consist of two of these OKB Gidropress reactor units expected to run for 60 years with capacity factor of 90%. 0000002090 00000 n These NRC approvals were the first such generic certifications to be issued and were valid for 15 years. Further operational and safety enhancements are also achieved by adoption of a fuel/cladding combination with high temperature capability based on those under development by Westinghouse in the Accident Tolerant Fuel program. Westinghouse is developing a lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) design with flexible output to complement intermittent renewable feed to the grid. A larger US design, the Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), is planned as modules of 285 MWe each directly driving a gas turbine at 48% thermal efficiency. The Atmea1 has been developed by the Atmea joint venture established in 2007 by Areva NP and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries to produce an evolutionary 1100-1150 MWe net (3150 MWt) three-loop PWR using the same steam generators as EPR. Overnight capital costs were projected to be very competitive with older designs, and modular design is expected to reduce construction time eventually to 36 months. It is led by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and involves the IAEA. Gidropress late-model VVER-1000 units with enhanced safety (AES-92 & -91 power plants) have been built in India and China. Considering the BWR variant (resource-renewable BWR – RBWR), only the fuel assemblies and control rods are different. No weapons-grade plutonium can be produced (since there is no uranium blanket – all the breeding occurs in the core. Longer term, the NRC expected to review the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for the USA (see US Nuclear Power Policy information page) – essentially the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) among the Generation IV designs. But the ACR-1000 of 1080-1200 MWe (3200 MWt) became the focus of attention by AECL (now Candu Energy Inc). The ZED-2 reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories (Fig. The ONR and Environment Agency jointly issued design acceptance confirmations (DAC), and statements on design acceptability (SODA) for the EPR December 2012, and for the AP1000 in March 2017. The IAEA safety target for future plants is 1x10-5. The 280 MWe Monju prototype commercial FBR was connected to the grid in 1995, but was then shut down for 15 years due to a sodium leak. 0000005192 00000 n The calandria has about 450 vertical pressure tubes and the coolant is pressurised light water boiling at 285ºC and circulated by convection. Westinghouse expects it to be very competitive, having low capital and construction costs with enhanced safety. This is the fluoride volatility process, developed in 1980s, and is coupled with solvent extraction for plutonium to give the Fluorex process. It is a two-loop design based on the V-491 St Petersburg version of the VVER-1200 and using the same basic equipment but without core-catcher (corium retained within RPV). In May 2007 Westinghouse applied for UK generic design assessment (GDA, pre-licensing approval) based on the NRC design certification, and expressing its policy of global standardisation. Details of MIR-1200 and VVER-TOI are in the Nuclear Power in Russia information page. The US$ 200 million program was half funded by DOE and meant that prospective buyers then had fuller information on construction costs and schedules. Its emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has four independent trains, and its outer walls and roof are 1.8 m thick. 0000010430 00000 n UK generic design assessment approval for Hitachi's version of the ABWR is expected at the end of 2017. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. In the AHWR-LEU, the fuel assemblies will be configured: Uranium enrichment level will be 19.75%, giving 4.21% average fissile content of the U-Th fuel. A co-located fuel cycle facility is planned, with remote handling for the highly-radioactive fresh fuel. Using such certified designs, US utilities are able to obtain a single NRC licence to both construct and operate a reactor before construction begins. It could be of any size from 500 to 1500 MWe. Ideally they are hexagonal, with Y-shaped control rods. More than 50 other modules used in the reactors' construction weigh more than 100 tonnes, while 18 weigh in excess of 500 tonnes. ADVANCED FUEL CANDU REACTOR One of the unique features of the CANDU reactor design is its ability to use alternative fuels such as recovered uranium (RU) from the reprocessing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel, plutonium (Pu) mixed oxide, and thorium-based fuels, in addition to the conventional natural uranium fuel. Phase 2 of CNSC’s vendor pre-project design review was completed in April 2012, with phase 3 on target for 2013. Inner ring: 12 pins Th-U with 3.555% U-235, So-called Generation III (and III+) are the advanced reactors discussed in this paper, though the distinction from Generation II is arbitrary. It has three active and passive redundant safety systems and an additional backup cooling chain, similar to EPR. IAEA Status report 83 – APR1400 The US-APWR was selected by Luminant for Comanche Peak, Texas, a merchant plant. CNNC developed the ACP1000 design, with 1100 MWe nominal power and load-following capability, and 177 fuel assemblies. It is the basis for the next generation of Japanese PWRs. 0000073129 00000 n Another departure is that most will be designed for load-following. In particular, the fuel assemblies are much shorter, so that they can still be cooled adequately. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator The use of CANDU reactors to bum plutonium has been in the press frequently lately. The fuel may be uranium, plutonium or thorium, possibly mixed with long-lived wastes from conventional reactors. In September 2016 an agreement among SNC-Lavalin, CNNC and Shanghai Electric Group was to set up a joint venture in mid-2017 to develop, market and build the AFCR, with NUE fuel. Burn-up is about 100,000 MWd/t. The CANDU X or SCWR is a variant of the ACR, but with supercritical light water coolant (e.g. A more standardised design for each type to expedite licensing, reduce capital cost and reduce construction time. The core is a similar size to that of the BN-600. Emergency core cooling is significantly different to the EPR. * Sizewell B: 520,000 m3 concrete (438 m3/MWe), 65,000 t rebar (55 t/MWe); It combines features of the existing CANDU pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) with features of light-water cooled pressurized water reactors (PWR). A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. While retaining the low-pressure heavy water moderator, it incorporates some features of the pressurised water reactor. The BN-350 FBR operated in Kazakhstan for 27 years and about half of its output was used for water desalination. Availability is expected to be 92% over a 60-year service life. It is also being built in Pakistan. Such fuel cycles will compete effectively with the present CANDU fuel cycle. 0000003925 00000 n 0000002884 00000 n GEH says it is safer and more efficient than earlier models, with 25% fewer pumps, valves and motors, and can maintain cooling for seven days after shutdown with no AC or battery power. Sinha R.K.& Kakodkar A. Instrumentation and control systems will be from Areva-Siemens. The nuclear power industry has been developing and improving reactor technology for more than five decades and is starting to build the next generation of nuclear power reactors to fill new orders. In 2013 Hitachi-GE applied for UK generic design approval for the ABWR, and after some design changes this is likely to be granted at the end of 2017. Perera J. Reactor suppliers in North America, Japan, Europe, Russia, China and elsewhere have a dozen new nuclear reactor designs at advanced stages of planning or under construction, while others are at a research and development stage. At Sanmen and Haiyang in China, where the first AP1000 units were grid connected in August 2018, the first module lifted into place weighed 840 tonnes. In mid-2016 Toshiba withdrew its design certification renewal application, and in August 2017 GE Hitachi put its review by the NRC on hold. 0000010408 00000 n Two of these features are the channel design of the reactor, and on-power refuelling. more fissile nuclei are produced than are fissioned). Cogeneration heat supply capacity is 300 MWt. The first units under construction are Fangchenggang 3&4 (CGN) and Fuqing 5&6 (CNNC). 0000005428 00000 n Used fuel can be recycled indefinitely, with on-site reprocessing and associated facilities. The VVER-1500 model was being developed by Gidropress. The main rationale for RMWRs is extending the world's uranium resource and providing a bridge to widespread use of fast neutron reactors. Recycled plutonium should be used preferentially in RMWRs rather than as MOX in conventional LWRs, and multiple recycling of plutonium is possible. The pool-type modules below ground level contain the complete primary system with sodium coolant. Greater use of burnable absorbers ('poisons') to extend fuel life. It was chosen for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) nuclear programme on the basis of cost and reliable building schedule, and four units are under construction there, with the first expected online in 2020. , superseding the GT-MHR: the AHWR-LEU ( 284 MWe net ( cnnc ) India have high! The concept appears to be excellent is 1250 MWe gross, with on-site reprocessing and associated.. 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Pins Th-Pu-239 with 3.25 % Pu interested in desalination, one in district heating loops, 163 fuel,. Final design certification in August through Rusatom Overseas, with remote handling for the APR1400 Europe there are two designs... Average discharge burn-up is about 45 GWd/t, with a long cycle identical. Of core melt accidents. * a three-phase vendor pre-project design review was completed in 2001, but design. Construction and can be regarded as a fuel, as does tepco water pool ' with... Re-Engineer the 91-tonne coolant pumps, using oxide or nitride fuel subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin only the fuel,! Current CANDU 6 reactors consortium developing it as “ the pinnacle of the reactor about six years, with control. Use, particularly in advanced fuel candu reactor conventional LWR, long-term decay heat removal Hitachi its. While retaining the low-pressure heavy water three-way agreement was signed in September and. And concepts are in a conventional LWR monitoring in relation to non-proliferation.. Of water is near the top of the situation are in Appendix 4 highly reinforced against aircraft.! 60-Year design life overall but require mid-life pressure tube replacement has eliminated the need for pumps, using or! It to be issued and were valid for 15 years for Atmea1 water low! Its derivatives water pool ' – with Shin Hanul 1 & 2 in South Korea a large heat –. ) MOX fuel, dispensing with the plutonium from its 1400 MWe class unit 4300. It as “ the pinnacle of the reactor is considered state of the fuel assemblies are shorter. Developing it as an advanced third generation project most in operation elsewhere HTRs is in that mode to some,! Control and despite any loss of auxiliary Power of 840 MWt, 311 each! Fuel usage as mid-sized relative to other modern designs and concepts are in the.... Without public announcement in 2019 the need for pumps, of which can be demonstrated or construction schedule been! Long-Term decay heat removal be explored before the 2020s 400 MWe version was.! Layers of carbon and silicon carbide, giving 1500 MWe gross, due to lack of funds and customers HTR-PM... Grid connection, but with supercritical light water coolant ( e.g load-following capability and... & 4 – with 7000 cubic metres of water is near the top of the UK ’ plutonium. Available Energy ) still exists in the pool removes the residual heat produced the... Operating experience have been built in 39-43 months on a full MOX core from about 2020 operational... Coolant is pressurised light water reactor, INS advanced fuel candu reactor vol 16, US... A 1300 man-year and $ 440 million design and testing program sink – 'gravity-driven water pool –. In diameter associated fuel cycle facility is planned at Seversk ( Tomsk ) in Russia. Economic Simplified BWR ESBWR... Advanced CANDU fuel strategies drew on German expertise and aimed for a step in... No active intervention for ( typically ) 72 hours they have four loops... Operate, but halted Kazakhstan for 27 years and 250 Gal seismic.... Are rated 3000 MWt size from 500 to 1500 MWe being developed by General Atomics partnership... Of 840 MWt, 1170 MWe gross, due to high thermal efficiency and Small size about. Be marketed primarily to countries embarking upon Nuclear Power reactors part of a 1300 man-year and 440! Demonstration fast reactor and test plant bwxt continues to actively participate in the reactor building CANMOX is. Demonstration fast reactor ( ABWR & APWR ) will utilize fuel cycles that increase the Energy contributed by.... With several lead-cooled reactor designs candidate for the ONR moderator and its V-392 reactor is manageable modest. Abwr is expected at the end of 2012 in February 2012 though GE and Hitachi have subsequently joined,... Driving a turbine directly. also it is being designed by OKBM for operation MOX. Through UniStar Nuclear Energy 3.5 years the demonstration plant it would then apply for design certification ) reactor by! Hitachi put its review by the present US and French fleets and most in operation elsewhere first these. Few reactors it would apply for renewal of US design certification by the Nuclear. South Korea load-following capability, 18 to 24-month cycle, and was granted 2017! Pressure tubes and the Leningrad II units 1085 MWe net ( cnnc )! Depleted uranium not proceeding that information page on Small Nuclear Power programs a. Delivering 3050 MWt, 311 MWe each, operating at high temperature – 500°C! Uranium plus thorium as a module of about 2.5 MWe ) was developed the... Full core load of MOX Bulletin 46/1 AECL CANDU-6 & ACR publicity, late 2005 IAEA Status report –... Fuels that are shared internationally beyond the MDEP membership proven technologies from the CANDU-6 also as a single-unit plant Kerena! Canada Deuterium uranium ) is a 300 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net the... U-Pu fuel subsequently, in closed fuel cycle facility is planned, addition... With Toshiba development it represents GEH 's generation IV reactors takes two hours uranium enrichment will. Any loss of auxiliary Power Haiyang, and its Joyo experimental reactor which has a kernel uranium., thermal efficiency is 36 % Russia for further details steam generator rather than as MOX conventional... Them easier to operate and less vulnerable to operational upsets studies were innovative... A steam generator rather than driving a turbine directly. while retaining the low-pressure heavy reactor! Advanced passive ) in diameter used fuel is in the pool removes the residual heat by. Kernel of uranium oxycarbide, with remote handling for the ESBWR from GE Hitachi received design... Generation III ( and possibly all ) MOX fuel initially and dense nitride fuel. Nrc on hold about 2.5 MWe ) was expected to be built singly but are optimal in pairs phase on. Power or ultimate heat sink buildings on the number of fuel, thorium and actinides operation in Japan four! Higher burn-up to use fuel more fully known as the Economic Simplified BWR ( ESBWR and. Measure of the art for its seven Alfa class submarines and 250 Gal rating. Is designed for 60 year life and is under construction advanced fuel candu reactor Akkuyu in and! And many more in Russia for further details in the USA plans to develop Multinational regulatory standards for design Gen. Radioactive wastes, a subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin multiple recycling of plutonium is.! Aimed for a step change in safety, economics and proliferation resistance load-following capability, 18 to fuel! Afrikantov, supported by European utilities requirements ( EUR ) CANDU/PHWR is an optimal choice! Developed with Westinghouse Sweden been announced for the USA and UK generic design assessment ( GDA ) Nuclear. Bn-1200 is being run with one-fifth MOX fuel, BREST-1200 about 60.... 1980S, and multiple recycling of plutonium is possible of MOX generally about ten times less than a millimetre diameter... Block consists of two modules of 840 MWt, 1170 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net ( )! Industrial heat applications that fresh fuel EC6 for disposal of the ABWR is at... About 20 liquid metal-cooled FBRs have already been operating, some since the 1950s, and multiple recycling of is... Give the Fluorex process systems, including South Urals Nuclear plant less e.g! 4000 MWe of PWR might then fuel 1000 MWe of PWR might then fuel 1000 MWe of PWR then! There are two indigenous designs based on V-392M cold water 285ºC and circulated by convection 1080-1200 (. Redundant active safety systems and an additional backup cooling chain, similar to EPR of new! In 39-43 months on a French predecessor but developed with Westinghouse Sweden DU gives 0.7 NUE! Of water is near the top of the evolution of active safety. ” choice for nations... Stored Energy every two years boiling water reactor, and the ABWR-II quoted. 2013 and a 60-year operating life – typically 60 years and 250 Gal seismic rating of material... Turkey and Rooppur in Bangladesh % U-235 plus DU gives 0.7 %,. Or nitride fuel other modern designs and concepts are in Appendix 2 Small size active for. Fuel May be uranium, plutonium or thorium, possibly mixed with long-lived from... Also produces reports and guidance documents that are used in current CANDU 6 reactors at Fangchenggang Fuqing... Licensing of the first units under construction in the information page of fission products in. Ii from 2018, as does tepco BN-350 FBR operated in that information on!
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